NGC/IC Project Restoration Effort
(This is a very very beta version)
Location and Magnitude
Right Ascension: 1:16:12.4
Visual Magnitude: 14.0
Year of discovery: 1881
Discovery aperture: 31.0
Summary description: vF, vS, R, vlbM
NGC 451 = IC 1661, and is another of Barnard's IC discoveries sent directly to
Dreyer (Stephan discovered the object, and his observation led to the NGC
entry). It is also the second of two nebulae which Barnard found in the area.
Like the first (NGC 447, which see), there is possible confusion about its
identification. In this case, Barnard's description is sparce, "eF, S, R"
and his position has the RA of NGC 451, but is closer in declination to NGC
Two things convince me that Barnard reobserved NGC 451 (which is just where
Stephan measured it to be): 1) this galaxy is brighter than N449 by at least
a magnitude, and it is larger, too. 2) Barnard's declination is about 1.2
arcmin north of the true place of NGC 451, just as his declination of N447 is
about 1.4 arcmin north of that galaxy. If he observed both objects on the
same night, as seems likely, then the offset will be systematic. Since we
know the identification of N447 = I1656 is solid, it follows that N451 must be
17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, oval. Located 3.3' SSW of mag 6.0 SAO 54567! Forms a close pair with NGC 449 1.9' NW.